Faculty of Environment

News & Events

Student in Faculty of Environment

Excellent student satisfaction results for the Faculty of Environment

The Faculty of Environment has achieved excellent student satisfaction results in the 2017 National Student Survey (NSS).

The School of Earth and Environment received 98% and the School of Geography received 94% overall student satisfaction.

Geology achieved an impressive 98% overall student satisfaction and Physical Geography and Environmental Science achieved 97%, with both areas ranked 1st out of all Russell Group universities. 

There were other strong scores in the rest of the Faculty. Human and Social Geography achieved 92% overall student satisfaction. 

The University of Leeds also performed well, scoring 89% for overall satisfaction. This is the highest score among the Russell Group institutions for which data is available. Three other universities in the group had the same score. 

Leeds scored highly in the learning resources category, coming top in the Russell Group with a score of 91% across the category relating to library and IT resources. 

In instances where universities did not return institution-level results this is likely to be because a 50% response rate was needed for publication and some institutions will not have met this threshold. 

The 13th National Student Survey ran from January to April 2017, and is sponsored by the HEFCE. Final year students were asked to indicate their level of agreement with 27 statements regarding their experience of their course.

Clothworkers court gate and students

Top 15 in the Guardian University Guide 2018

The Faculty of Environment has achieved top 15 rankings in the Guardian University Guide 2018.

The University of Leeds overall has also risen this year, moving up two places to become 14th in the UK.

The Guardian University Guide judges universities in areas such as students’ course, teaching and feedback satisfaction levels as well as student spend and employability.

Geography and Environmental Science ranked 10th in the Complete University Subject Tables 2018.

The Faculty also achieved a top 10 position for Geology in the Complete University Subject Tables 2018.

CWUR logo

Top 10 world rankings for the Faculty of Environment

The University of Leeds has been ranked in the world’s top 10 across several Faculty of Environment research areas, according to the CWUR World University Rankings 2017.

Achieving global top 10 positions in Environmental Studies, Geology, Geography, Transportation, and Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences, the Faculty of Environment has had success across the board.

The Center for World University Rankings (CWUR) publishes the only global university ranking that measures the quality of education and training of students – as well as the prestige of the faculty members and the quality of their research – without relying on surveys and university data submissions.

CWUR currently lists the top 1,000 of over 26,000 degree-granting institutions of higher education worldwide. This makes it the largest academic ranking of global universities.

The subject rankings for the University of Leeds are as follows:

Environmental Studies 5th

Geology 6th

Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences 9th

Geography 9th

Transportation 5th

For more information on CWUR and to see the rankings in full, please visit the CWUR website. 

Mocked-up graphic of transport

A new online tool reveals the areas and routes in England that have the greatest potential for cycling

The newly-launched Cycling and Walking Infrastructure Strategy (CWIS) is part of a £1.2 billion government plan to make cycling the natural choice for short trips.

A central part of the delivery of the CWIS at the local level is the Propensity to Cycle Tool (PCT), which was developed by academics from four UK universities, including the University of Leeds.

The CWIS highlights the Propensity for Cycle Tool’s potential use in assisting with the preparation of Local Cycling and Walking Infrastructure Plans (LCWIP) – a key feature of the government’s strategy. 

The tool, funded by the Department for Transport, helps prioritise investment in transport planning and is widely seen as representing a step-change in planning strategically to increase cycling. The design, features and potential applications of the PCT was recently published in the Journal of Transport and Land Use.

Lead author Dr Robin Lovelace, based at Leeds’ Institute for Transport Studies and the Leeds Institute for Data Analytics, is lead developer of the tool. He said: “The PCT allows decision makers to be confident that investment in cycling will spent sensibly, in the right places and as part of a joined-up cycling network.”

During a recent visit to the Institute for Transport Studies, Secretary of State for Transport Chris Grayling received a full demonstration of the PCT. The tool currently uses 2011 Census data on journeys to work. It offers four scenarios of change for transport planners, cycling advocates and the public to help decide which areas and routes should be prioritised. These include a ‘Go Dutch’ scenario modelled on cycle use in the Netherlands and one featuring an increased uptake of electrical bikes.

Chris Grayling, Secretary of State for Transport and Robin Lovelace at Institute for Transport Studies building launch, March 2017
Chris Grayling, Secretary of State for Transport and Robin Lovelace at Institute for Transport Studies building launch, March 2017

Roger Geffen, policy director at Cycling UK, the UK’s largest charitable membership organisation promoting cycling use said: “PCT is set to have a transformative impact on cycle planning in England. I believe it is the single best thing the Department for Transport has done for cycle planning. 

“The way PCT is featured in the LCWIP guidance will encourage local authorities to use the PCT to inform their cycle network planning processes. 

“I therefore expect most local authorities in England – and certainly any authority with serious ambitions to boost cycle use – will use the PCT to help develop their LCWIPs over the next few years.”

What does the Propensity for Cycle Tool tell us about Leeds?

The Propensity to Cycle Tool (PCT), reveals high cycling potential along all of the major arterial routes into Leeds city centre – including the Leeds to Bradford cycle superhighway, which opened in June 2016.

Dr Lovelace said: “Some people have questioned whether the investment in the cycle superhighway was worth it. Our analysis shows the route has high cycling potential, seeing a five-fold increase in cycle commutes if West Yorkshire commuters took to cycling like our Dutch counterparts.

“A ‘Go Dutch’ scenario may at first appear ambitious. But the average cycle commute in the Netherlands is in fact shorter than the average cycle commute in England, so ‘Going Dutch’ means making more cycle trips, not longer ones.”

Sometimes people assume the reason for low rates of cycling is due to West Yorkshire being too hilly or the journey distances are too long. The ‘Go Dutch’ scenario uses Dutch cycling rates for English commuter trips, adjusted for both distance and hilliness – and dramatic cycling rate increases are still shown.

Under the ‘Go Dutch’ scenario, every English local authority would see at least 1 in 15 commuters cycling to work, with a third seeing cycle commuting rates of 20% or more.

In West Yorkshire, if people cycled at the same rates as people living in the Netherlands, 13% of all commuters would cycle. This would take more than 50,000 cars off the roads in West Yorkshire every morning, reducing the proportion of commuters who drive from 63% to 57%. Cycle commuting levels in West Yorkshire are currently very low at 1.3%.

Propensity to Cycle Tool, showing the estimated number of cyclist on the roads of central Leeds under the 'Go Dutch' scenario. Credit: The Propensity to Cycle Team, with basemap data provided by OpenStreetMap and cycle routes provided by CycleStreets.net.
Propensity to Cycle Tool, showing the estimated number of cyclist on the roads of central Leeds under the 'Go Dutch' scenario. Credit: The Propensity to Cycle Team, with basemap data provided by OpenStreetMap and cycle routes provided by CycleStreets.net.

In Germany, half a million electric bikes (Ebikes) are sold every year, helping a hilly country reach high levels of cycling. The same could happen here, with more supportive cycling infrastructure and policy. In hilly Leeds, for example, modelled cycling potential jumps from 15% in the ‘Go Dutch’ scenario to 25% under the Ebikes scenario.

Principal Investigator on the project Dr James Woodcock, from the Centre for Diet and Activity Research at the University of Cambridge, said: “This analysis highlights just how much cycling potential exists right across the country; not only in those areas already part of the upsurge in cycling but also in places that haven’t yet started investing.”

With this week’s Tour de Yorkshire, the region is likely to see a rise in cycling enthusiasts.

Dr Lovelace said: “Sport cycling is great at getting people cycling. But our research shows that you don’t need to be Bradley Wiggins to join the cycling revolution: cycling to work and other trips in everyday life is accessible to many people in Yorkshire and beyond.”

Further information

Image: An artist’s impression of what York Road in Leeds could look like in the future with more supportive cycling infrastructure and policy. Credit: James McKay

The PCT is available to explore the level of cycling in your local area at www.pct.bike. To see the level of cycling in West Yorkshire, for example, zoom into the map at www.pct.bike/m/?r=west-yorkshire and click on the dropdown menus.

For any additional information please contact University of Leeds Media Relations Officer Anna Martinez on a.martinez@leeds.ac.uk or +44 (0)113 343 4196.

Faculty of Environment success in the Complete University Guide 2018

Complete University Guide logo

The Faculty of Environment has achieved top 10 positions for Geology, Geography and Environmental Science in the Complete University Guide 2018.

Covering university wide and subject specific rankings, the Complete University Guide looks at entry standards, student satisfaction, research quality and graduate prospects.

The Faculty has jumped from 12th to 10th for Geography and Environmental Science, while maintaining its place as 8th in the UK for Geology.

This year the University of Leeds has climbed 2 places to rank 14th in the UK, adding to previous successes, including the title of University of the Year 2017 (The Times and Sunday Times’ Good University Guide).

Leeds also features in the top 10 across 20 other subject areas.

Valuing the Infrastructure of Cities, Regions and Nations, 26-27th April

This 2-day conference will cover several core themes including valuing, financing and funding infrastructure from local and national perspectives; and the future of local infrastructure in the face of crisis in Local Government funding and finance.

Covering sectors such as water, transport and energy, you will explore the following key topics:

  • Business Models for Infrastructure
  • Governance and infrastructure value
  • Finance
  • Urban living
  • Cultural and Social Value
  • Sustainability
  • Financialisation
  • Industrial Strategy and Regeneration
  • Modelling of infrastructure assets
  • How Universities can aid local infrastructure funding, finance and value creation

The conference will consist of interactive and panel sessions and you will be presented with the latest and most valuable findings in the area from three major research programmes? iBUILD, ICIF and ITRC-MISTRAL.

During the conference we will be exploring some key questions such as:

  • What are the main issues for local authority funding and finance of infrastructure provision?
  • How can and do Universities work with local authorities and other stakeholders to address these?
  • How can we better understand infrastructure needs, purpose and value?
  • What new business models are emerging and what can we learn from this?

To find out more and register your place, please visit the Valuing Infrastructure website

QS World University Rankings by Subject 2017

QS World University Ranking logo

The Faculty of Environment at the University of Leeds has had another successful year in the 2017 QS World University Rankings by Subject.

The annual survey evaluated 3,551 universities globally on a range of subject areas and disciplines. The Faculty of Environment has achieved top positions in the following areas: 

The rankings by subject are based on criteria such as academic reputation, employer reputation and research impact.

Key achievements for the School of Earth and Environment include: 

  • =3rd in the UK and Top 20 in the World (Earth Sciences)
  • Top 15 in the UK (Environmental Sciences)
  • Top 10 in the World for Research Impact (Earth Sciences)
  •  Top 10 in the UK for Academic Reputation (Environmental Sciences and Earth Sciences) 

Key achievements for the School of Geography include:

  • 11th in the UK and Top 25 in the World
  • Top 15 in the UK for Academic Reputation
  • Top 15 in the UK for Research Impact 

Further information

For a full breakdown of the University of Leeds results by subject, visit the QS World University Rankings by Subject 2017 website.

Forging powerful Chinese partnerships as University celebrates largest alumni event

Notice
Shanghai

The University is helping lead a high-level delegation to China this week, forging partnerships and opportunities between Chinese provinces and the Leeds City Region, Council, universities and business. 

Joining the delegation is Pro-Vice-Chancellor: International, Professor Hai-Sui Yu and Professor Steven Banwert, the Integrating Chair in Soil, Water and Agricultural Research from the School of Earth and Environment

The aim is to boost the city of Leeds’ profile through an intensive week of meetings and presentations with China’s public and private sector leaders. 

The University also hosted its largest-ever alumni meeting, with more 250 taking part in the celebrations in Shanghai. An alumni celebration also takes place in Hong Kong. 

The events will mark Leeds’ status as The Times and Sunday Times’ University of the Year 2017, awarded for the University’s approach to student education and outstanding student experience

During the visit, Professor Yu is due to sign a formal memorandum of understanding with Zhejiang University, committing both organisations to closer working and collaboration on challenge-led research projects and global student experiences. 

Discussions will also focus on how Leeds and universities in China can unlock potential and respond to calls from the UK’s Government £1.5bn Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF) and the £735m Newton Fund

High-level collaborative meetings will also be held with representatives from Fudan University, Shanghai International Studies University (SISU), Nanjing University, and Shanghai Jiao Tong University, with which Leeds signed a memorandum of understanding last month. 

Professor Yu said: “We will be promoting the University’ ambitious plans to increase our global reach and impact, encouraging colleagues in China to collaborate in joint research and student education and teaching opportunities. Leeds is a truly global city and we offer access to some of the best and brightest minds in the world. 

“The University has been consistently ranked among the top 100 research universities in the world and our £520m investment in our campus will make our cutting-edge technology and facilities a major attraction to talented international researchers and students. 

“Combining that with our drive to recruit more world-leading professors and 250 of the brightest new university research fellows, we are determined to support Leeds as being an innovative, strong and successful investment alternative to London.” 

The wider delegation will also highlight Leeds’ bid to become the European Capital of Culture 2023, drumming up support for the bid which could bring significant visitor numbers and investment to the City. 

Recent projects likely to be showcased include the University’s Anglo-Chinese theatrical programme, celebrating a 400 year legacy of William Shakespeare and Tang Xianzu. 

Members of the delegation will also meet with private sector firms including technology company Alibaba, Huawei and Dahua in Shanghai and Hangzhou. 

Roger Marsh OBE, Chair of the LEP, said: “The time is right for the City Region to be furthering its relations with China. Our world class institutions such as the University of Leeds and our strong business base offer an unrivalled access to innovation, particularly in the sectors of healthcare, life sciences, big data and technology; areas which are of interest to the fast growing Chinese market but also driving growth in both our regional and national economy.”

ITS Open day advert

Cutting-edge transport research showcased to Secretary of State

Transport Studies building

The Secretary of State for Transport visited the University of Leeds today to see the cutting-edge research aiming to help the transportation sector become more accessible, efficient and productive.

In a two hour visit Chris Grayling also opened the new £4m building for Institute for Transport Studies (ITS), which will provide a new modern research and teaching space. 

Enhanced spaces have been created for PhD and post-doctoral researchers, to ensure that the University is supporting emerging talent alongside its world-class professors. 

The investment is part of the University’s wider £520m development plan, to create a world-class campus for research and teaching. 

The new building also marks 50 years since the discipline of transport studies was first established at Leeds. 

During his visit to the University, Mr Grayling met with leading researchers and was told about how among other successes Leeds research has informed efficiency targets for Network Rail and the safety ratings of cars used by Euro NCAP.

Professor Richard Batley, Director of ITS said: “The latest generation of ITS professors cover topics reflective of the highly complex nature of our modern transport system, and we consistently strive to create new knowledge which benefits the public and private sectors.

"It was important to be able to explain our work to the Secretary of State, and to show how it can have a real impact on society.”

Mr Grayling was able to see first-hand how ITS research is addressing society’s transport needs in the face of rapid changes in environment, economics and demographics. 

ITS researchers had the opportunity to showcase ongoing research projects such as DISRUPTION; a project aiming to reduce the energy use and associated greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector by looking at people’s mobility, including their travel and use of computers and mobile phones.

Other projects included research into safer cycling, climate change, energy security, technology and human factors in transport.

Mr Grayling also watched a demonstration of a pedestrian simulator, which allows researchers to gather real time data on people interacting with their environment while walking. 

Mr Grayling said: “We want to encourage young people to take up the many exciting and cutting-edge careers in transport, and I’m very grateful to have the chance to open the Institute for Transport Studies. 

“What I’ve seen today of the research being done - there is something for everyone in this department. There is work that will influence local authority and national government, and can get businesses thinking about how to improve efficiency and safety.

“I’m confident that Leeds University students will play a huge part in shaping a modern transport system for the future, and I wish them the best of luck with their important work.”

Mr Grayling also heard about the University’s recently announced major investment in a new Institute for High Speed Rail Engineering.

He met Peter Woodward, professor of high speed rail engineering, and Professor Lisa Roberts, Deputy Vice-Chancellor: Research and Innovation, to discuss its likely impact.

Professor Roberts said: “These are exciting times for transport policy and planning in the UK, and our world class Institute for Transport Studies is ideally placed to help shape this agenda and deliver innovative solutions.

“The investment in a new Institute for High Speed Rail Engineering at Leeds comes at a time when the UK and other countries are investing heavily in revolutionising their rail networks; in the UK alone the HS2 plans are ambitious and transformational. 

“Our new institute will bring together several of our leading research groups in ITS, our Faculty of Engineering, Leeds Institute for Data Analytics and other external partners to develop the engineering, economic and broader inter-disciplinary research programmes that will support the development of a modern railway system in the UK and around the world.”

Professor Batley added: “The Institute for Transport Studies is the UK's largest single academic group providing transport courses and training.

"Our new building will enable enhanced interactions between the Institute’s students, staff and industry partners; furthering our mission to advance the understanding of transport activity, operations and use, and to develop skills and best practice among transport professionals and decision-makers.” 

The event was also attended by key industry representatives from HS2, Department for Transport, Transport Systems Catapult, Leeds City Council and West Yorkshire Combined Authority, all of whom work closely with ITS staff and students. 

Further information 

For additional information, please contact Anna Martinez, University of Leeds Media Relations Officer, on +44 (0)113 343 4196 or email a.martinez@leeds.ac.uk

Professor Peter Woodward has been announced as a new Chair in High Speed Rail Engineering at the University of Leeds.

Professor Woodward

The appointment of Professor Woodward, who is currently an industry sponsored Professor of High Speed Rail at Heriot-Watt University, comes at an important time in the growth and development of the University and the City.

Leeds City Region has a pivotal role in unlocking the potential of the Northern Powerhouse. 

The City is getting HS2 ready, integrating High Speed Rail in its plans for economic growth, as well as the development of the South Bank and the Leeds Station complex, and is drawing on the University's strengths in innovation and enterprise across a number of areas of science, technology and engineering. 

Professor Woodward will be responsible for developing a new Institute for High Speed Rail Engineering at the University, using his expertise in geotechnical engineering to create a world leading research and innovation hub with an emphasis on train-track interaction and infrastructure systems. 

This will complement other university-based research centres in the UK and respond to industry demand for undergraduate and postgraduate skills in railway engineering and other related areas. 

The Institute will also work with a range of international partners including Southwest Jiaotong University in China, where Leeds has opened a new Joint School

A distinguished researcher, Professor Woodward has played a key role in developing the polymer based track stabilisation system known as XiTRACK, which has increased track speed and reduced maintenance costs in a number of rail networks. 

For example, this technology was used to stabilise the track bed at Clapham Junction, one of the busiest railway junctions in Europe with more than 2,500 trains passing through every day. 

Announcing the appointment, Sir Alan Langlands, Vice-Chancellor of the University, said: “We are very pleased to welcome Peter Woodward to the University of Leeds. 

“Together with world leading experts in our Institute for Transport Studies, whose strengths include railway economics, policy and planning, and in Civil, Mechanical and Electronic and Electrical Engineering, he will work with industry partners and colleagues in other universities to provide unrivalled support for a modern rail network in the UK." 

Professor Woodward said: “I'm absolutely delighted to be appointed to the position of Professor of High Speed Rail Engineering at the University of Leeds. 

“The University is one of the world’s top research-led universities and will play a major role in the development of the Northern Powerhouse. 

“High Speed 2 will be of major economic benefit to the City of Leeds and the formation of this new Institute will enable new national and international collaborations, placing Leeds as a global go-to place for high speed rail research in a market that is expanding rapidly across the world.” 

Professor Woodward will take up post in the Faculty of Engineering at Leeds in June 2017.  

Further information 

Contact the University of Leeds press office on 0113 343 4031 or email pressoffice@leeds.ac.uk  

Biography for Peter Woodward 

Peter Woodward is the Atkins Professor of High Speed Railways (first ever UK sponsored chair in high-speed rail) and a former Director of the Institute for Infrastructure & Environment at Heriot-Watt University. 

He has a First Class Honours Degree in Civil Engineering and a PhD in Geo-dynamics both from the University of Manchester. He is a Fellow of both the Institution of Civil Engineers and the Permanent Way Institution and a Chartered Engineer. 

He was seconded part-time to the railway industry between 2001 and 2010 as the Technical Director of his own spin-out company and in 2016 was appointed as an Honorary Professor at Central South University, China. He has been the Principal Investigator on many research grants, including funding from the EPSRC, EU, TSB and industry. 

He invented a unique patented railway track reinforcement system (XiTRACK) that has been used across the UK and overseas (including for the London 2012 Olympics). 

This technique received the Highly Commended Award in the Innovation of the Year category at the National Rail Awards 2005, the Institution of Civil Engineers Webb Prize, 2008, the Network Rail Partnering Award 2014 and the Railway Industry Association Product Innovation of the Year 2015. It was also cited by the EPSRC as representing one of the impact case study highlights of the entire REF2014 exercise. 

He has given invited Workshops and Keynote addresses at major international conferences across the world on railway track geo-dynamics at high-speed, transitions and track reinforcement. 

He is a consultant to the railway industry, particularly on high speed ground dynamics and track reinforcement. He advises High Speed 2 on track geo-dynamics and his work is cited in HS2‘s Earthworks Specification Design Document. He also serves on the Network Rail Track Stiffness Working Group and the High Speed Rail Industry Leaders Group.

Could 2017 be the year of the electric car?

Electric car

New research from the Faculty of Environment suggests we might be driving electric sooner than we think.

The research conducted by Dr Stephen Hall (School of Earth and Environment), Professor Simon Shepherd and Dr Zia Wadud (Institute for Transport Studies), explores the need for new technologies and engineering innovations to help tackle climate change, air pollution and the green economy.

The Innovation Interface report explores how previously isolated sectors can be linked through e-mobility business models. The auto industry, energy systems and transport infrastructure are combined through ten business models, each offering different benefits.

The report’s business models offer innovations that could help bring the electric car to the mass market.

An article written by Dr Stephen Hall for The Conversation presents 5 reasons why we might be using electric vehicles in the near future:

1.      Electric fuel costs could go down
It is already much cheaper per mile to drive electric than diesel or petrol and most people will also do their charging at night, when the price of electricity is much lower than during the day. 

So long as consumers set the car to charge after 9pm, they could hit prices under 2p per mile. Watch out for electricity suppliers offering special deals to electric vehicle customers.

2.      Electric cars can be clean and green
Low-price electricity is often the greenest electricity. Some electric cars can already be switched on and off charge remotely – and there is no reason they cannot be programmed to charge when electricity is cheapest or greenest.

Look out for new apps and programs to link car charging with renewable energy by remote scheduling charge cycles.

3.      Mobility for the price of a coffee
For 97% of the time, we are not behind the wheel of our cars. This has led to a host of non-ownership models where people take short-term rental of cars, buying “mobility as a service”.

Mobility as a service could be linked with the energy system to offer low-carbon vehicle access to everyone – whether they want to actually own a car or not.

4.      No driveway, no problem
Throughout 2017, UK cities have been investigating new rapid charger provision that can fully charge a normal electric vehicle in the time it takes to drink a coffee and check emails.

These rapid charger points are available in motorway service stations, but they are set to appear in cities, too – so not having a driveway won’t stop you buying an electric vehicle if you live anywhere close to one of these “filling stations of the future”.

5.      Buy one for the price of a used Ford
In the past, linking up your brand new electric car with your home would have set you back at least £35,000.

But now as the first generation of electric cars are arriving on the secondhand market, anyone can get a bargain.

Leeds is top UK university for environmental impact of research

Times Higher Education news story has shown Leeds is the top UK university for the environmental impact of its research and eighth in the world between 2011-2015, based on field weighted citation impact (from Elsevier’s Scopus database). Utrecht University in The Netherlands came top, followed by Stanford, Stockholm and Harvard. The University of Oxford came ninth.

Our score was boosted by papers by highly cited researchers from the Faculty of Environment, including: Oliver Phillips (School of Geography), whose multi-author paper A large and persistent sink in the world’s forests (Science, 2011) has 1733 citations; Andy Shepherd, Director of the NERC Centre for Polar Observation and Modelling and lead author of A reconciled estimate of ice-sheet mass balance (Science, 2012), which has 557 citations, and Priestley International Centre for Climate director Piers Forster, one of four lead authors of Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A Scientific Assessment, a multi-author paper by Bond et al (Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 2013), which has 1269.

Image source: Elsevier

Scientists observe first signs of healing in the Antarctic ozone layer

New research has identified clear signs that the hole in the Antarctic ozone layer is beginning to close.

Scientists from the School of Earth & Environment were part of an international team led by Professor Susan Solomon of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to confirm the first signs of healing of the ozone layer, which shields life on Earth from the sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays.

Recovery of the hole has varied from year to year, due in part to the effects of volcanic eruptions.

But accounting for the effects of these eruptions allowed the team to show that the ozone hole is healing, and they see no reason why the ozone hole should not close permanently by the middle of this century.

These encouraging new findings, published today in the journal Science, show that the average size of the ozone hole each September has shrunk by more than 1.7 million square miles since 2000 – about 18 times the area of the United Kingdom.

The research attributes this improvement to the 1987 Montreal Protocol, which heralded a ban the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) – then widely used in cooling appliances and aerosol cans.

Professor Solomon said: “We can now be confident that the things we’ve done have put the planet on a path to heal. We decided collectively, as a world, ‘Let’s get rid of these molecules’. We got rid of them, and now we’re seeing the planet respond.”

Co-author Dr Ryan R Neely III, a Lecturer in Observational Atmospheric Science in the School of Earth & Environment, said: “Observations and computer models agree; healing of the Antarctic ozone has begun. We were also able to quantify the separate impacts of man-made pollutants, changes in temperature and winds, and volcanoes, on the size and magnitude of the Antarctic ozone hole.”

Leeds colleague and co-author Dr Anja Schmidt, an Academic Research Fellow in Volcanic Impacts, said: “The Montreal Protocol is a true success story that provided a solution to a global environmental issue.”

She added that the team’s research had shed new light on the part played by recent volcanic eruptions – such as at Calbuco in Chile in 2015 – in Antarctic ozone depletion.

“Despite the ozone layer recovering, there was a very large ozone hole in 2015,” she said. “We were able to show that some recent, rather small volcanic eruptions slightly delayed the recovery of the ozone layer.

“That is because such eruptions are a sporadic source of tiny airborne particles that provide the necessary chemical conditions for the chlorine from CFCs introduced to the atmosphere to react efficiently with ozone in the atmosphere above Antarctica. Thus, volcanic injections of particles cause greater than usual ozone depletion.”

The ozone hole begins growing each year when the sun returns to the South Polar cap from August, and reaches its peak in October – which has traditionally been the main focus for research.

The researchers believed they would get a clearer picture of the effects of chlorine by looking earlier in the year in September, when cold winter temperatures still prevail and the ozone hole is opening up. The team showed that as chlorine levels have decreased, the rate at which the hole opens up in September has slowed down.

Key facts 

  • Scientists from the British Antarctic Survey discovered in the mid-1980s that the October total ozone was dropping. From then on, scientists worldwide typically tracked ozone depletion using October measurements of Antarctic ozone
  • Ozone is sensitive not just to chlorine, but also to temperature and sunlight. Chlorine eats away at ozone, but only if light is present and if the atmosphere is cold enough to create polar stratospheric clouds on which chlorine chemistry can occur
  • Measurements have shown that ozone depletion starts each year in late August, as Antarctica emerges from its dark winter, and the hole is fully formed by early October
  • The researchers focused on September because chlorine chemistry is firmly in control of the rate at which the hole forms at that time of year, so as chlorine has decreased, the rate of depletion has slowed down
  • They tracked the yearly opening of the Antarctic ozone hole each September from 2000 to 2015, analysing ozone measurements taken from weather balloons and satellites, as well as satellite measurements of sulphur dioxide emitted by volcanoes, which can also enhance ozone depletion. And, they tracked meteorological changes, such as temperature and wind, which can shift the ozone hole back and forth.
  • They then compared yearly September ozone measurements with computer simulations that predict ozone levels based on the amount of chlorine estimated to be present in the atmosphere from year to year. The researchers found that the ozone hole has declined compared to its peak size in 2000. They further found that this decline matched the model’s predictions, and that more than half the shrinkage was due solely to the reduction in atmospheric chlorine and bromine
  • Chlorofluorocarbon chemicals (CFCs) last for up to 100 years in the atmosphere, so it will be many years before they disappear completely
  • The reason there is an ozone hole in the Antarctic is that it is the coldest place on Earth – it is so cold that clouds form in the Antarctic stratosphere. Those clouds provide particles, surfaces on which the man-made chlorine from the chlorofluorocarbons reacts. This special chemistry is what makes ozone depletion worse in the Antarctic.

Further information

Dr Anja Schmidt is an Academic Research Fellow in Volcanic Impacts and Hazards at the University of Leeds’ School of Earth and EnvironmentDr Ryan R. Neely III is a Lecturer in Observational Atmospheric Science at the Leeds-based National Centre for Atmospheric Science and Leeds’ School of Earth and Environment.

Scientists from the Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling (ACOM) Laboratory at National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado, also worked on the research, which was supported in part by the National Science Foundation and the US Department of Energy.

The paper, Emergence of Healing in the Antarctic Ozone Layer, is published in Science todayFor copies of the paper, interviews, images or further information, contact Gareth Dant, University of Leeds Media Relations Manager, on 0113 343 3996 or email g.j.dant(at)leeds.ac.uk.

National Centre for Atmospheric Science

The National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) is a world leader in atmospheric science, a multi-million pound research centre, funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). NCAS carries out research in climate science, atmospheric composition and air quality, physics of the atmosphere (including hazardous and extreme weather) and provides the UK community with state-of-the-art technologies and scientific facilities for observing and modelling the atmosphere, including a world-leading research aircraft.

University of Leeds

The University of Leeds is one of the largest higher education institutions in the UK, with more than 31,000 students from 147 different countries, and a member of the Russell Group research-intensive universities.

We are a top 10 university for research and impact power in the UK, according to the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, and positioned as one of the top 100 best universities in the world in the 2014 QS World University Rankings. www.leeds.ac.uk

The EU Referendum – Statement from the Faculty of Environment:

Following the EU referendum outcome, we wish to re-emphasise the global outlook of the Faculty of Environment and that of the successful Schools and Institute within it. The Faculty is a world-leading base for environment research and student education and we will continue to advance understanding of the societal, economic and environmental challenges facing the world through our global research programmes and to train our students to guide and lead on positive changes. Together with University leaders we will make the strong case for Government investment in research and training as a key route to economic development and for sustainable foundations for long-term growth and stability. 

Whilst the referendum result has caused considerable uncertainty in many ways, in the immediate-term we stress that no fundamental changes have occurred to the research funding and student support landscape. Notably, we shall continue to pro-actively input to EU Horizon2020 funding proposals and to ERC funding schemes, and, following the confirmation from Jo Johnson that students from other EU countries who are currently at UK universities and those starting this Autumn will receive student loan support for the duration of their course, we look forward to welcoming our new and returning EU students to campus in September. 

Andy Dougill, Richard Batley, Anne Tallontire, David Bell, Simon Bottrell & Greg Marsden 

Faculty Academic Executive Team 

--------------------------------------------

Professor Andy Dougill, 
Dean of Faculty of Environment,
Professor of Environmental Sustainability, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, LEEDS, LS2 9JT.

New online courses earn academic credits for degrees

The University of Leeds has launched a new range of online courses that will enable students to earn academic credits towards degrees.

The university is one of eight leading higher education institutions from around the world offering such courses on the FutureLearn platform of massive open online courses (MOOCs).

Called Programs, they will enable learners to take part in high-quality online courses.

Leeds' first Program is called Environmental Challenges and is made up of five short online courses that consider the relationships between people and nature, as well as the challenging and difficult decisions we face when managing natural resources.

For more information visit the University News Room

Athena SWAN Bronze award for Faculty

Athena SWAN Bronze Award for Faculty

The Faculty of Environment has been awarded the Athena SWAN bronze award for our work on advancing gender equality across the three schools. The Athena SWAN charter and awards seek to identify, promote and share good practice in advancing equality across genders in academia. This means analysing the journey from undergraduate applications through postgraduate study right up to the recruitment and retention of professorial staff and identifying how to improve.

Commenting on the success Professor Greg Marsden (submission coordinator) said "This is a great achievement, which recognises some of the good practice that already happens across the Faculty in making it a more diverse student population and inclusive workplace. However, we have also identified more that can be done from the details of organising field trips to enhanced support for those returning from parental leave."

The Faculty submission is available to download.

Women of Achievement University of Leeds

Faculty staff celebrated as 2015 Women of Achievement

To mark International Women's Day on Sunday 8th March 2015, the University has awarded 13 members of staff or students the title 'Woman of Achievement 2015'.

The Women of Achievement awards underpin the University's Athena SWAN objectives. The University of Leeds has been commended for its work to support the career development of talented women working in the traditionally male dominated fields of Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) in the form of a prestigious bronze award under the Athena SWAN Charter for Women in Science. The Faculty of Environment is currently working towards a bronze award submission.

Awards go to the following:

Dr Andrea Jackson, Pro-Dean for Student Education
School of Earth and Environment
Nominated as a result of her National Teaching Fellowship.

Professor Lindsay Stringer, Professor in Environment and Development, Sustainability Research Institute
School of Earth and Environment
Nominated following her 2013 Philip Leverhulme Prize for Geography.

Anne Clarke, Student in MSc Transport Planning
Institute for Transport Studies
Nominated following her MVA Transport Prize 2013 for the best dissertation in transport planning and sustainability, and the STAR (Scottish Transport Applications and Research) Conference prize 2014.

Laura Mills, Student in BSc Geography
School of Geography
Nominated following her runner-up prize in the Environment Agency’s Pollution Challenge competition 2013.

Research Excellence Framework Logo

Faculty celebrates success in Research Excellence Framework (REF) 2014

The Faculty of Environment has excelled in the Research Excellence Framework (REF) 2014 whose results were published on 18th December 2014.

The Institute for Transport Studies is in the Top 2 nationally for research power, with its research rated to be 'internationally excellent'.

The School of Earth and Environment is ranked in the Top 5 universities in the UK for research in Earth systems and environmental sciences, and one of the UK’s Top 2 centres for research power and for the quality of its research.

The  School of Geography has risen to be ranked in the Top 5 UK Geography departments for research power.

The University of Leeds overall is ranked in the Top 10 for research power.

University of Leeds’ Vice-Chancellor Sir Alan Langlands, said: “Our place as one of the UK’s top ten universities for research and impact power reflects the quality and sheer scale of our research at Leeds.”

The REF is a robust and internationally-recognised exercise to measure the quality of UK university research. The results are used to allocate around £2 billion of government funding for research each year.

Institute of Environmental Management & Assessment logo

Undergraduate degrees gain IEMA accreditation

The School of Earth and Environment's BSc and MEnv in Sustainability and Environmental Management has been accredited by the Institute of Environmental Management & Assessment (IEMA) as an ‘Associate Certificate’ course.  Leeds is the only Russell Group University to offer an IEMA accredited undergraduate degree.

Read more.

Cheery Blossom flower

Global importance of pollinators underestimated

A major study, published today in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B and co-authored by the School of Geography Dr Guy Ziv, looks at the importance of pollinators to 115 of the most common food crops worldwide and the importance of those crops in delivering vital nutrients to vulnerable populations. Read more.

Rainforest

Amazon inhales more carbon than it emits

A new study led by NASA and Professor Manuel Gloor of the School of Geography, University of Leeds has confirmed that natural forests in the Amazon remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere than they emit. This finding resolves a long-standing debate about a key component of the overall carbon balance of the Amazon basin. Read more.